The Roman Ghetto was the first, last, and largest Jewish ghetto to be established in all of Western Europe. The Roman Ghetto was established as a result of a Papal bull issued by Pope Paul IV on 14 July 1555. The ghetto was controlled and managed by the Papal State from 1555 until 1870, except for a brief sevens years under Napoleon. It was destroyed when the newly formed Italian Republic was established and took over lands owned by the Pope. Today, this area of Rome, Italy is filled with quaint restaurants and shops in the old buildings.